Forage Feeding

a. Type

  • These are mainly green forages such as Napier grass, Lucerne and sweet potato vines among others.

b. Feeding Method

  • All forages should be chopped and fed in feeding troughs to avoid feed wastage.

Straw and Farm Products

a. Type

  • These include materials such as wheat straw. Rice straw maize Stover and other vegetable byproducts

b. Feeding Method

  • They are best fed by first soaking in water or molasses incase of straw and also poor quality hay.

c. Required Quantities

  • A dairy cow should be given 40-70kg of chopped forage per day, preferably in two splits i.e. one in the morning and the other in the evening.


  • Dairy cattle ration should contain 70% energy source, 30% protein source and required minerals (such as: 35% wheat bran + 35% maize + 30% cotton seed cake + 1% minerals).


  • A dairy cow should be given two kilograms of concentrates for each gallon of milk produced above the first 2 gallons. It is assumed that a cow can produce up to two gallons of milk per day from good forage without giving concentrates so long as the required minerals are present or available.


a. Type

  • Dairy cubes, dairy meals, maize germ, bran (wheat, rice or maize), cotton seed cake sunflower cake, Soya bean cake etc.

b. Time of feeding

  • For lactating cows concentrates are given always when milking
  • For steaming up cows and heifers concentrates are given daily for 2 months before calving

c. Quality

  • Concentrates to have 15-18% crude protein

d. Quantities

  • 2 kg /day /cow during steaming up and up to 4kg /cow /day for in calf heifers during steaming up.
  • 2 kg /day /cow for each extra 1 gallon of milk above the first 2 gallons.

Note: Steaming up

  • This is extra feed of high quality concentrates (preferably compounded), which is given to in-calf cows and heifers at 2-4 kg per cow per day for two months before calving. However, it can be more or less depending on the condition of the animal. Growing heifers will need more.


a. Types

  • For milking cows maclic super can be used
  • For heifers and dry cows maclic plus can be used

b. Quantity

  • Each animal should consume 80 to 100gm per day of maclic, super or plus

c. Method

  • Granular mineral products should be mixed with feeds in a feeding trough while free lick should be allowed if it is in the form of a solid block.

Note: Calves should get maclic plus block in adlib.