Integrated Systems;

Manure application can be made easy by placing animal production units adjacent to or over the fish ponds so that fresh manure can easily be delivered to the pond on a continuous basis. This also allows the feed wasted by the animals to fall into the fish pond and utilised by the fish. Effective and safe manure loading rates are maintained by having the correct number of animals per pond surface area.

a)   Chicken/fish farming:

Maximum tilapia yields are obtained from the manure output of 5,000 to 5,500 chickens/ha, which deliver 100 to 113 Kg (dry weight) of manure/ ha/day. Several crops of chickens can be produced in one fish production cycle.

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b)   Duck/fish farming

Ducks are grown on ponds at a density of 750 to 1500/ha. The ducks are raised in confinement, fed intensively, and allowed a small portion of the pond where they forage for natural foods and deposit their manure. Ducks reach marketable size in 10 to 11 weeks and therefore staggering production cycles is needed to stabilize manure output.

 c)   Pig/fish farming

Approximately 60 to 70 pigs/ha are required to produce a suitable quantity of manure (90 to 100 pounds of dry matter/acre/day) for tilapia production. The pigs are usually grown from 44 to 220 pounds over a 6-month period. In cultures and religions where pigs are considered unclean, used of pig manure might reduce the marketability of the fish.

 d)   Rice cum fish farming

Various methods of integrating rice and fish are applied. The common used in is to stock fish when the rice field is being filled with irrigation water. Specially designed ponds can be used to allow for the two cropping. This can be done by digging trenches within or around the paddy for fish.