a) What is a mushroom?
A mushroom is a macro-fungus (big fungus) with a distinctive fruiting body, hetero-nutritive. It makes its food by decomposition of organic matter.
b) The structure of mushroom;
i) Cap (pileus)- Colour (white, grey, yellow) and shape (umbrella, kidney, cap) depend on species
ii) Stype (stem)- Stype is stem like structure that supports the pileus and transports nutrients from the substrate to other parts of mushroom.
iii) Gills -tissues that produce spores.
iv) Mycelia- absorbs nutrients from substrate
Principles of Mushroom Growing
When a fully grown mushroom opens its cap it releases spores, which when flown by wind and fall on suitable substrate, under optimal environmental condition, they germinate into hyphae (single strand of fungus) that branches to become mycelia and colonize. The hyphae produces enzyme that breaks down the substrate material, converting it into food. After some times, mushroom pinheads appear and then developes into a mushroom.